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非谓语动词篇章:什么叫非谓语动词?

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发表于 2019-3-28 09:19:04 | 只看该作者 |只看大图 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
谓语动词包含四种形式,即不定式、动名词、现在分词和过去分词。具体形式如下:
1、不定式:to do(表示主动,并且一般表示将来)
The teacher told us to do morning exercises . 老师让我们做早操。
2、动名词:doing (表示主动)
Travelling in space by ordinary people will be common in the future.在未来,普通人在太空旅行将会是普遍的事情。
现在分词:doing (表示主动和进行)
He sat there,reading a newspaper.他坐在那里,读着一张报纸。
4、过去分词:done
及物动词的过去分词表示被动或完成;不及物动词的过去分词表示主动或完成。polluted river 被污染的河流 (及物动词pollute和river之间是被动关系,即“河流被污染”)
fallen leaves 落叶(不及物动词fall和leaves之间是主动关系,即“叶子落下来”)
注意:非谓语动词本身不能表示现在和过去。非谓语动词表示进行和将来是相对于谓语动作来说的:和谓语动作同时发生表示进行;发生在谓语动作之后表示将来。

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非谓语动词的作用 :

1、 不定式:做主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和补语。
To learn a foreign language is difficult .(作主语)学会一门外语是很难的。
It’s easy to see their aunt.(作真正主语,it做形式主语)很容易见到他们的姑姑。
Tom wanted to have a cup of beer.(作宾语)汤姆想要喝杯啤酒。
His wish is to be a driver.(作表语)他的愿望是当一名司机。
I have nothing to say.(作定语)我没有什么可说的。
The teacher told us to do morning exercises . (作宾语补足语)老师让我们做早操。
They went to see their aunt. (目的状语)他们去见他们的姑姑。

2、 动名词:做主语、宾语、表语、定语。
Learning English is very difficult .(作主语)学bet365在线体育赌博_bet365澳门足球平台_bet365首页非常困难。
I enjoy dancing.(作动词宾语)我喜欢跳舞。
I have got used to living in the country.(作介词宾语)我已经习惯了住农村。
His job is driving a bus.(作表语)他的工作是开车。

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?楼主| 发表于 2019-3-28 09:30:39 | 只看该作者
非谓语动词用法归纳
主动? ?? ???被动
1. doing 用在要求动词后;进行;伴随;性质;特点;概括;抽象;一般
3. having done 有先后动作表完成(一般用在句首)? ?? ???2. being done正在进行的被动
4. having been done用于句首;要求动词后(有过去时间或过去动作)
5. to do? ?用在要求动词后;目的;将来;具体
7. to have done 在要求动词后表完成的动作(一般用在句中)? ?? ???6. to be done将来的被动
8. to have been done用在要求动词后(有过去时间或过去动作)
? ?? ???9. done 被动;完成(一般或普遍时间)
一、表格的用法
1.? ?? ???doing 的用法
(1)在要求动词后(作宾语):avoid避免appreciate 感激/欣赏acknowledge承认/自认 admit 承认advocate提倡/主张consider 考虑 can't help不禁 can't stand受不了contemplate细想complete完成confess坦白 dislike不喜欢,讨厌deserve值得 delay延迟 deny否认 dread可怕defer拖延detest嫌恶 enjoy享有/喜爱envy嫉妒endure忍受excuse借口escape逃跑/逃避finish完成forgive原谅 fancy幻想/爱好favor 造成/偏爱figure描绘/计算hate讨厌 imagine设想involve卷入/包含keep保持miss错过mention说到/讲到mind 介意pardon原谅/饶恕permit允许 postpone推迟practice 实行/实践prevent阻止quit放弃停止risk冒险recall回想resist抵抗/阻止 resume恢复repent悔悟resent怨恨stand坚持/忍受suggest建议save营救/储蓄tolerate忍受 worth值得
? ?You should try to avoid making mistakes.
? ?The book is worth reading.
? ?The book deserves reading.
??(2)表进行
??Walking on the grassland, I saw a snake.=When I was walking on the grassland, I saw a snake.
??The man speaking English is Tom. = The man who is speaking English is Tom.
??(3)表主动
The man speaking English is Tom = The man who speaks English is Tom.
= The man who spoke English is Tom.
??Nobody dinks boiling water but boiled water.= Nobody dinks water that is boiling but the water that has boiled.
(4)表伴随
I stand outside waiting for Mr. Chen.
I lie in bed reading a novel.
(5)表性质;特点
The film is very moving.
She is understanding, so you had better discuss your business with her.
(6)概括性,一般性
Climbing mountain is very interesting.
Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(概括性,一般性)
Our work is serving the people.
(7)动名词的逻辑主语为;①人称代词的所有格+动名词;②名词's+动名词。例如:
Tom insisted on my going with them.他坚持要我和他们一起去。
He dislikes his wife's working late.他不喜欢他妻子工作得很晚。

2. being done表示正在进行的被动
The boy being criticized by Mr. Chen is Tom. = The boy who is being criticized by Mr. Chen is Tom.
??Being criticized by Mr. Chen, the boy felt sad. = When the boy was being criticized by Mr. Chen, he felt sad.
??The building being built will be the tallest one in this city.
= The building that is being built will be the tallest one in this city.

3. having done 有先后动作表完成(一般用在句首)
??Having finished the class, I went home. = After I had finished the class, I went home.
??Having done the work, I had a short rest. = After I had done the work, I had a short rest.

Having done the work, I went back home.
Having been done, the work was checked by the leaders.

4. having been done用于句首;有先后动作表完成有先后动作表完成,(有过去时间或过去动作)
I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago. (要求动词后)
=I appreciate that I was given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.
Having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago, I still appreciate your help then.
= Because I was given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago, I still appreciate your help then

I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.
I enjoy giving the opportunity to study abroad to Mr. Wang.
I appreciate being given the opportunity to study abroad now.

Having been finished, the report was turned in.= After the report had been finished, it was turned in.

5. to do的用法:
(1)用在要求动词后: 接to do的动词(作宾语)
attempt企图afford负担得起arrange安排appear似乎,显得 ask问 agree同意 believe 认为、相信begin开始beg请求 bother扰乱/烦恼care关心,喜欢 choose选择 claim要求 consent同意,赞同 contrive设法,图谋demand要求 destine注定 determine决定 dread害怕 desire愿望 decide决定 enable能够 expect期望 endeavor努力fail不能hate憎恨/厌恶 happen碰巧 hesitate犹豫 hope希望 intend想要 incline有…倾向 long渴望 love爱 learn学习 mean意欲,打算manage设法neglect忽视need需要omit忽略,漏 offer提供 pretend假装 plan计划 prefer喜欢/宁愿 prepare准备 profess表明 promise承诺/允许 propose提议refuse拒绝swear宣誓 start开始 seek找/寻觅 try试图undertake承接 volunteer志愿 vow起 wish希望 want想要
(2)表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作(做表语)。
Our work is to serve the people.
The person to do the job is Tom. = The person who will do the job is Tom.
To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做两件事等于未做。
What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是立刻开始干。
如果主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)。
To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。
To work means to earn a living.工作就是为了生活。
如果主语是以aim,duty,hope,idea,happiness,job,plan,problem,purpose, thing,wish等为中心的名词,或以what引导的名词性从句,不定式作表语是对主语起补充说明作用。
His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.他的希望是在不远的将来买一辆豪华轿车。
The function of Louis Sullivan's architecture was to provide large uninterrupted floor areas and to allow ample light into the interior.
The most important thing is to negotiate with them about the future of the plant.

省to 的动词不定式
1) 情态动词 ( 除ought 外,ought to):
2) 使役动词 let, have, make;在被动语态中则to不能省掉。
The boss made them work the whole night. = They were made to work the whole night.
3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to。在被动
语态中则to 不能省掉。
? ? I saw him dance. = he was seen to dance.
? ? 注:感官动词还可以接现在分词,表示一个(短暂)动作正在进行;不定式则表示动作的整个过程。
I saw him dance.(整个跳舞的过程)
I saw him dancing.(我看见他时,他正在跳舞。强调动作正在发生)
A cook will be immediately fired if he is found ________ in the kitchen.
A. smoke? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?B. smoking? ?? ?? ?? ???C. to smoke? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?D. smoked
find sb. doing sth意为“发现某人正在做某事”。
4) 表示个人意愿或倾向的would rather,had better,might(just) as well:rather than置于句首时。
? ? Rather than ride on a crowded bus, he always prefers to ride a bike.
If you are planning to spend your money having fun this week, better ________ it—you’ve got some big bills coming.
A. forget? ?? ?? ? B. forgot? ?? ?? ?? ?C. forgetting? ?? ?? ???D. to forget
5) why… / why not…
6) help 可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth:
7) but和except:but前是动词do时,后面出现的动词用不带to的动词不定式;是其他动词时,则要带to。
He wants to do nothing but go out.
He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.
8)不定式做表语时,一般要带to,但若主语部分中含有do的各种形式时,符号to可省去。
? ?We've missed the last bus. All we could do now is walk home.
9) 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand等词后,可以省去to be:
? ? He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。
10)当两个或多个不定时短语由连词and,but或or连接时,后一个或几个不定式符号to常省略。但若表示
对比、对照关系时,则不能省略。
He wants to move to France and marry the girl.
The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, not to make it more difficult.

6. to be done将来的被动
??The work to be finished tomorrow is important.= The work that will be finished tomorrow is important.
= The work that is to be done is difficult to finish.
7.to have done 在要求动词后表完成的动作(一般用在句中)
??Mr. Chen is said to have done the job. = Mr. Chen is said that he did the job.
??Chinese men’ basketball team is reported to have accepted a good training before the Olympic Games.
??= Chinese men’ basketball team is reported that they accepted a good training before the Olympic Games.

8. to have been done用在要求动词后(有过去时间或过去动作)
??The job is said to have been done by Mr. Chen. = The job is said that it was done by Mr. Chen.

9. done 被动;完成(一般或普遍时间)
??Seen from the moon, the earth looks like a blue ball.= When it is seen from the moon, the earth looks like a blue ball.
??The work done is important.= The work that has been done is important
= The work that was done is important
People cannot but feel puzzled,for they simply cannot understand how he could have made such a stupid mistake.

二、出题形式
1.空格在句首:
(1)句子分前后两部分,后面分句的主语能发出前面的动作,前面空格用主动,否则用被动;
(2)be interested in; be faced with; be devoted to; be delighted with; be addicted to; be seated on; be dressed in; (be) used/accustomed to; be armed with; be involved in; be concerned about/with; be attached to; 等在句首只能用--ed形式
? ?Faced with so many difficulties, I work hard every day.
Devoted to my work; I care nothing else.
2.空格在句中:
(1)空格前面的名词能发出后面的动作,空格用主动,否则用被动
(2)要求动词(后接doing的动词;后接to do的动词)
(3)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别
forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做)forget doing忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生)
stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事? ?stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事
remember to do 记住去做某事(未做)remember doing记得做过某事(已做)
regret to do对要做的事遗憾? ?regret doing对做过的事遗憾、后悔
try to do努力、企图做某事? ? try doing试验、试一试某种办法
mean to do打算,有意要…??mean doing意味着
go on to do 继而(去做另外一件事情) go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情)
propose to do 打算(要做某事)proposing doing建议(做某事)
like /love/hate/ prefer +to do 表示具体行为;+doing sth 表示抽象、倾向概念
It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名词+doing sth.
It is no use crying.哭没有用。It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。
It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣。It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。
It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive等形容词)+ doing sth.
It is useless speaking.光说没用。? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你。
It is good Playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好。It is expensive running this car.开这种小车是浪费。
3.空格在句尾:
(1)物 + need, want, deserve, demand, require + doing( = to be done )
? ?The blackboard needs cleaning. = The blackboard needs to be cleaned.
(2)参考使役动词make; let; get; have 的用法
Sb(1) makes sb(2) do 前面的人让/叫/使后面的人做某事
Mr. Chen makes us do English exercise.
Sb(1) makes sb(2) doing 前面的人让/叫/使后面的人一直做某事(有前提条件,表示抱怨或发牢骚)
Mr. Chen is too strict on our English study and he always makes us doing English exercise.
Sb(2) is made to do某人被让/叫/使去做某事
We are made to do English exercise.
Sb makes oneself / one’s point done某人让/叫/使自己或自己的话/观点让别人听懂
Mr. Chen speaks English slowly in order to make himself understood in the class.
Sb makes sth done某人把/让/叫/使某事给别人做
I have my hair cut.
Sb has done sth某人已经做完了某事
I have cut my hair.
(3)不及物动词构成的不定式做定语,要加上适当的介词和被修饰的名词形成逻辑上的动宾关系,这里的介词不能省去。
??I need a pen to write with.我需要一支笔写字。
??There is nothing to worry about.没有什么值得发愁的。
I find a house to live in.
I get a chair to sit on.

三、独立主谓结构:
和以上所有句子只有一个逻辑主语不同,独立主谓结构有两个不同的主语。
Weather permitting, we go out to have a picnic.= If the weather permits, we go out to have a picnic.
??Work done, I had a rest. = After the work had been done, I had a rest.
??Class being over, I went home. = Because the class was over, I went home.
??Kate being ill, I came to replace her position. = Because Kate was ill, I came to replace her position.
Time ________, I’ll go on a picnic with you this Sunday.
A. permits? ?? ?? ?? ?B. to permit? ?? ?? ?? ?C. permitted? ?? ?? ?? ?D. permitting
更多例子:
??①All things considered, he is a fairly good teacher of English.
??②Spring having come, the trees begin to turn green.
??③There being no pen, I had to write the letter with a pencil.
??④We had to stay indoors instead of playing outside, it raining very hard.
(注意:不要把后半部分写成一个句子:it was raining very hard.在这种情况下,前后句之间就必须加上连词and。)
??⑤Breakfast over, my father went to his office.
??⑥The summer vacation being over, John returned to school from his hometown.

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